Ghana’s land tenure system is characterized by a complex web of customary and statutory laws. The country’s legal framework for land administration and management is governed by the Ghana Land Act, 2020 (Act 1036), which repealed the 1962 Land Act (Act 123). The new law aims to streamline the land administration system, facilitate efficient land transactions, and reduce conflicts over land.
One of the key provisions of the Ghana Land Act is the establishment of a Land Commission. The Commission is mandated to coordinate and oversee the implementation of the law and to ensure that it is consistent with the country’s land policy. The Commission is also responsible for the management of public lands, the resolution of land disputes, and the registration of customary land rights.
The Act also recognizes the rights of customary landowners and seeks to protect their interests. It defines customary land tenure as a system of land ownership and management that is based on the customs and traditions of the people. The law requires that any transaction involving customary land must be conducted with the consent of the customary landowners.
In addition, the Ghana Land Act establishes a comprehensive land registration system. All lands in the country, whether owned by the government, individuals, or communities, are required to be registered. The registration process involves the creation of a land title, which serves as proof of ownership. The law also provides for the establishment of a Land Title Registry, which is responsible for the management of land titles and the issuance of certificates of title.
Overall, the Ghana Land Act is a comprehensive legal framework that seeks to promote effective land management and administration. It recognizes the importance of customary land tenure and seeks to protect the rights of customary landowners. The law also establishes a transparent and efficient land registration system, which is essential for promoting land tenure security and facilitating investment in the country.